how to get rid of fruit flies in house plants

Dangling legs like mosquitoes Hang sticky fly traps near the source of the problem. Position this trap near the source of the problem. Old food Secure the paper cone with a piece of tape and place it in the jar wide-side up without touching the liquid. So the best thing is to not let your fruit rot." Be sure to check the warnings on any chemical-based pest control if you have children or pets in the house. Tansy is another herb that is perfect for keeping fruit flies away. Here’s what you need to know about choosing, installing, and living with a tankless water heater. Fruit flies (Drosophila spp.) Let the fruit flies sit in the mixture for one or two minutes before discarding the contents. If you’re wondering how to get rid of fruit flies, leave about 50-80 ml of the beverage in the bottle. 1) Control Your Soil Moisture By Adjusting The Watering Habits. Skip the DIY element all together by picking up one of the “fly punches” sold in grocery stores. Mix 1/2 teaspoon of dishwashing liquid with 1 cup of lukewarm water. Red Wine. This is a common scenario if you toss some overripe bananas and open and close the lid often. The sweet smell of honey will attract the gnats. Gnats in houseplants are annoying. For whiteflies, you’ll need to make sure to apply the neem oil to the undersides of your succulents’ leaves. Tempted by the bait, the fruit flies will go into the cone, and not be able to come back out. Take a cup and mix apple cider vinegar with beer. 1. While they look similar to mosquitoes, they don't bite. Here is a quick guide for everything we’ve covered above. 2. Can carry bacteria. Luckily, they don’t bite us, and although they are very annoying pests, there are many simple and natural ways to eradicate them. All rights reserved. How To Get Rid Of Fruit Flies In Your Kitchen. Here are some common hotspots. Annoying pests like fungus gnats and fruit flies can’t survive in dry soil. These nuisance pests that are attracted to fermenting and ripened fruit and vegetable matter can multiply quickly -- one female can lay up to 700 eggs in the four weeks that make up her lifetime. The company has a great warranty system, practices Integrated Pest Management, and has great reviews. Caines holds a degree in journalism from Mercurius College in Holland and is writing her first novel. Remove any damaged, cracked or rotting fruit and leaves from your plants, because these may attract fruit flies. Use an elastic band to secure a plastic sandwich bag over the jar opening so one of its corners is pointing down into the jar. They usually do not simply go away without intervention. There are several natural and organic means by which you can get rid of fruit flies from your kitchen, including the use of traps and repellent plants.. This also acts as a great preventative measure if you’re worried about upcoming warm weather. MAKE YOUR OWN STICKY TRAP Make a DIY sticky trapwith a 3 x 5 index card, a highlighter, a wood… © Copyright 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. Incorporate a drop of soap jell into this mixture. Both beer and wine have a very sweet smell. To learn more or opt-out, read our Cookie Policy. For over a century, Orkin has been tackling a wide range of pest issues for homeowners. You need to take action to make sure the situation doesn’t get out of control. When in doubt, we always recommend contacting a top pest control company to identify potential pest issues before it becomes a problem too hard to take on by yourself. You can try planting herbs and flowers such as basil or marigolds around the house, or even plant a … The flies climb into the trap via small holes to drink the liquid but are unable to leave. Avoid using home-made garden compost indoors, as this can be a source of fungus gnats. Use a soft cloth to wipe the flies off the plants. Alcoholic beverages are big draws for fruit flies, especially if a bottle sits open on the counter near a nest for an evening. This method is unnecessary if you are willing to allow the lemon-scented dish soap trap and time to kill those remaining fruit fly adults. Follow the same process of adding apple cider vinegar to a jar, cup, or bowl, but also add a tablespoon of dish soap. The fruit flies are much smaller. To avoid an infestation, rapidly incorporate various methods to kill the flies without damaging your plants. Pour about an inch of apple cider vinegar into a small bowl or jar and seal off the top with plastic wrap. Don’t have any plastic wrap handy? Removing the breeding site is the best way to get rid of fruit flies, Merchant said. on your hands, you're going to want to take action. After a few days, the fruit flies should drown in the apple cider vinegar. Fruit flies will only go away if you make your home inhospitable for them. They eat the fungus or rot that grows on the fruit. You're also going to want to do it in a way that's actually effective (after all, as much as we've come to appreciate them, even the best indoor mosquito traps are no good at catching these tiny flies!). Tankless Water Heaters: What You Need to Know Before You Buy. Discard the vinegar and dead fruit flies in the toilet, rinse the jar and refill with fresh apple cider once every two weeks. The beer attracts the fruit flies. Light the … Yes, it's a messy job. We use cookies and other tracking technologies to improve your browsing experience on our site, show personalized content and targeted ads, analyze site traffic, and understand where our audiences come from. Use a Bowl Trap to Get Rid of Fruit Flies We recommend the company for its flexible prices, customer service, and decades of experience. Copyright © 2020 This Old House Ventures, LLC. Add a bit of apple cider vinegar, some old fruit pieces, or sugar water at the base of the jar. The sooner you try to stop the spread of the infestation, the easier it will be to control. If you are dealing with fungus gnats then it’s a good idea to replace the … The old farmhouse had dark rooms, dead ends, and no place to park the kids' boots. Many natural and other fly repellents can be used outside to keep flies away from your house. It is one of the most effective home remedies for gnats. Gather in groups, Can bite A naturally sweet liquid inside attracts fruit flies into the contraption, locking them inside. Water your plants only when the top inch of their soil is completely dry. Fruit flies may congregate around an open can or recycling bin, even if they are open for just a short time. Use a soft cloth to wipe the flies off the plants. How to Turn a Reclaimed Beam into a Fireplace Mantel. Here are our favorites based on experience, price, and customer reviews. Round bodies "Fruit flies spend their whole lives searching for the smell of rotting fruit, then get in through cracks in the door or however the smell is getting out of your house," Schlenke says. Kimberly Caines is a well traveled model, writer and licensed physical fitness trainer who was first published in 1997. Read the insecticide label to make sure it can be used on the plants in question, and always apply it in a well-ventilated area. Large red eyes, Rotting fruit video for How to Turn a Reclaimed Beam into a Fireplace Mantel, Tan, yellow, or black in color If you need to get rid of a fruit fly infestation without delay, call your local pest control company. If this isn’t an option, remove all items—like fruit and garbage—from out in the open and set up one of the DIY fruit fly traps listed above. Here are the top three Amazon Fruit Fly traps that take the chemical route. Set the jar in the immediate area of your houseplants. Similar to the apple cider vinegar and plastic-wrap trick, seal off the top of a jar by creating a cone shape with a rolled-up piece of paper. Fill a jar with 1 inch of beer or 1 inch of cider vinegar. Put the liquid in a spray bottle and wet the fruit flies on the plants with it. When the fruit flies land on the glue, they won't be able to escape, and eventually die. But when the dust (and fiberglass) settles, you'll enjoy a fatter bank account and more comfortable indoor temps year-round. “We all have an instinct to grab the Raid or a bug bomb, but we’re not going to get rid of them until we get rid of their breeding sites,” he said. Find the Offending Cause. Tired of running out of hot water? Here are a few basic rules to follow to prevent fruit flies. This is another effective method in the list that is easy, effective, and very … To make it more accessible to the fruit flies, add a piece of rotten fruit on the surface. Tansy is a great plant … Check the jar frequently for trapped fruit flies. Place the plate near the aloe plant. They will become trapped once they touch the sticky texture. You can even seal it with a rubber band if the plastic wrap is not sticky enough. Antennae can instantly make your home seem unsanitary. In this guide, we’ll cover everything you need to know about identifying whether you have fruit flies in your home, natural and chemical ways to get rid of fruit flies, and how to keep them from coming back. It’s very attractive for fruit flies, making them fly towards it. Something as simple as forgetting to clean up a spill or leaving dishes in the sink can attract fruit flies, and just a couple fruit flies can quickly turn into an infestation. Red wine will surely … Gnats in houseplants typically result when the potting soil contains too much moisture. If there is a swarm of flying pests around your home, you are most likely dealing with one of three common household nuisances. Please also read our Privacy Notice and Terms of Use, which became effective December 20, 2019. Ask This Old House master electrician Heath Eastman explains the uses and purposes of different types of electrical boxes. Rinse your vase/container and reuse it to make another trap. In addition to placing traps, remove all food sources or space ideal for breeding that we listed above. Use a soft cloth to wipe the flies off the plants. Bonus: it looks great, too - and not just with succulents and cacti! Use an elastic band to secure a plastic sandwich bag over the jar opening so one of its corners is pointing down into the jar. However, instead of throwing the plant out, you can get rid of pesky fungus gnats using household vinegar. Known as fungus gnats, they're actually small flies about 1/8-inch long that are drawn to moist potting soil and decaying plant material at the base of indoor plants. To prevent a larger issue, you’ll want to know how to get rid of fruit flies. However, it’s important to identify fruit flies correctly so you can keep them from coming back. Fruit flies are also attracted to other common sweet and sticky spots in your kitchen, even if you simply missed some spilled fruit juice on the counter when wiping it up. Next, think about decreasing the chances of flies entering your home in the first place. Similar to Terminix, Orkin is also available in 47 states—all but Alaska, Wyoming, and South Dakota. You can use honey to get rid of fruit flies in plants. Discard the vacuum cleaner bag outside. Fruit flies are a common problem, typically attacking fruit-bearing plants in the garden. We’ve reviewed the nation’s top providers, all of which have locations spread throughout the country. Even the smallest rotten piece of produce welcomes flies to lay hundreds of eggs at a time. Most of these look like a small spice jar or round container with small holes at the top. Here's how an inventive redo made an 1830s artifact just right for a 21st-century household. Put the liquid in a spray bottle and wet the fruit flies on the plants with it. If fruit flies are primarily living and reproducing in your drains, this gel-based citronella drain treatment is the right choice, killing fruit flies and their eggs without damaging pipes. Dishwater Check out our guide on how to get rid of fruit flies quickly and confidently. Paper Cone and Fruit. Aptive uses child- and pet-friendly products derived from chrysanthemums, which produce the natural insecticide pyrethrin. In hot summer weather, these eggs can turn into adult fruit flies within one week. Use the rotten fruit against them. They require very small amounts of composting material to lay eggs and can lay up to 500 in their lifetime. The wine attracts the flies. In case the fruit flies are buzzing in the trap, take it outside before emptying the contents in the mixture of water and soap. Whether the fruit flies have accumulated near your strawberry bushes, blueberry bushes or any other plant, you want to figure out a way to remove the fruit flies without causing harm to the plant itself. Brown or black, Brown, black, or yellow Garbage, Moth-like wings The larvae will die trapped beneath, and you should be pest-free within a day or so. Fill a white plate with water and a few drops of lemon-scented dish soap. Spray insecticide on the plants with the fruit flies. Eradicate your current infestation with a chemically-based or natural approach and remove any temptations for fruit flies from your kitchen counters. To share feedback or ask a question about this article, send a note to our Reviews team at reviews@thisoldhousereviews.com. Get the latest This Old House news, trusted tips, tricks, and DIY Smarts projects from our experts–straight to your inbox. SMOTHER THE SOIL Because gnats and fruit flies lay their eggs in the top layer of soil,you can prevent their larvae from being able to climb out by spreading a layer of aquarium gravel or coarse sand over the top of the soil. These incredibly small flies easily travel through open doors, windows, or on your products from the store. It sounds simple, and believe it or not, it is. It will attract the fruit flies. Honey is another way through which you can get rid of gnats and fruit flies. Begin by removing any of the fruit fly’s favorite foods and places to reproduce from an accessible area. Fruit flies have the chance to reproduce inside the can and then scope out other meals in your kitchen when they escape. Either option is easy to get started relatively quickly as many of the natural tactics use products already in your pantry. Apple Cider Vinegar Wrap. Mix 1/2 teaspoon of dishwashing liquid with 1 cup of lukewarm water. The entire life cycle of a fungus gnat, from egg to larva to pupa to adult, lasts four weeks and takes place in fungus rich, moist topsoil, such as that in which you grow your plants. If you still spot fruit flies hanging around, you can set a trap using … Puncture small holes in the top of the wrap with a pin or tip of a knife. This trap works very similarly to one of the homemade varieties, but uses a mixture of water and sodium lauryl sulfate to kill the fruit flies. Fruit fly traps can be constructed with household goods, basic staples like soap and vinegar, and don’t require a lot of construction or DIY know-how. Make sure to pack it in well. Similar to the apple cider vinegar and plastic-wrap trick, seal off the top of a … How to Get Rid of Drain Flies in Houseplants, University of California IPM Online: Pests in Gardens and Landscapes, University of Kentucky: Department of Entomology: Fruit Flies, University of Minnesota Extension: Houseplant Insect Control, The Best Way to Catch Fruit Flies in Plants. Our Reviews team identified Aptive as the most eco-friendly option among major pest control companies. The company offers different tiers of plans depending on your budget and level of infestation. You can also spray your succulents directly to help get rid of any lingering adult gnats. Fruit flies are experts at reproducing in large numbers in common household areas and food that sits outside the refrigerator. Replace the Potted Soil. One bad apple can literally spark a fruit fly infestation in your kitchen. Put the cone on top of the jar with the narrow end pointing up. The good news is that they are easy to get rid of without chemicals, so you won’t need to invest a fortune in pest control products. If you are unlucky enough to suffer from an infestation, the first thing you must consider when you wonder how to get rid of fruit flies is the cause. By choosing I Accept, you consent to our use of cookies and other tracking technologies. If your fruit fly infestation has grown beyond control, chemical approaches may be your best bet. As fruit flies love the smell of red wine, you can use it to trap them. Plant Tansy. If your kitchen is prone to fruit fly gatherings, there are plenty of ways to stave off new infestations. If you do believe you've got a fruit fly (or a whole family of them!) The strip is said to last up to four months when placed near trouble areas in your home. Small pieces of old food can end up inside a sink drain, on the outside of a garbage can, or at the bottom of a fruit bowl, so be sure to examine these spots. When the fruit flies land on the glue, they won't be able to escape, and eventually die. The thin shape of the bottleneck acts in the same way as our other examples—it allows the flies in but keeps them from getting out. Additionally, fruit flies can spread bacteria that contain disease-causing agents. If you cover the surface of the compost with a 1cm-thick mulch of gravel, grit or ornamental glass pebbles, this will stop flies from laying their eggs. Related Reading: How to Get Rid of Drain Flies: 4 Simple Hacks. As soon as the flies touch the surface of the liquid, they won’t be able to hold themselves and drown dead in the solution. This is the quickest method for properly identifying and eradicating fruit flies. Place a candle in a candlestick and fill the holder partially with water. Always look for rotten plant debris around your home and remove them immediately. One of the easiest ways to get rid of fruit flies is simply opening up an old or unwanted bottle of wine or beer. Here’s how to tell the difference between the three pests. Fruit flies, gnats, and drain flies are easy to mix up. Mixed together, the substance becomes too thick for the flies to escape. The plate's color and the lemon scent lure fruit flies, which drown in the soapy water. Fill a jar with 1 inch of beer or 1 inch of cider vinegar. Another great way to keep fruit flies away from plants is to drown them using a trap. Make a candle trap. Looking for some quick answers about how to get rid of fruit flies? That’s not a problem with one of these compact, ultra-efficient units that heat water as you need it. Luckily, there are plenty of natural and chemical-based ways to get rid of fruit flies. Poke a 1/8-inch diameter hole in the corner of the plastic bag -- the plastic bag should resemble a funnel. Ask This Old House carpenter, Nathan Gilbert helps a homeowner turn a reclaimed mantel into a fireplace mantel. Identify the cause and remove it. "Fruit flies don't actually eat fruit, despite the name. The Terminix team provides pest control services in all states outside of Alaska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Fungus gnat larvae thrive … Candle and Water Trap. Find the source of the problem, because simply killing fruit flies without cleaning or getting rid of the source is not going to stop the problem. Small splashes of sugary drinks can also go unseen on your counter or around the outside of a liquor bottle until you notice fruit flies buzzing around. The company is a great option if you are located in one of the states it serves. A seasoned professional will know how to get rid of fruit flies quickly and effectively. Once they enter the jar through the funnel, they won't be able to escape and they'll drown in the beer or vinegar. There are also reliable fogging products for fruit flies.. Use the tips below to deal with fruit flies. The flies will be attracted to the sweet vinegar, sending them into the trap, but keeping them from getting out. To use neem oil against fungus gnats, you can make a soil drench by diluting the oil with a bit of water and applying it directly to the soil. Reproduce quickly So you can use Apple Cider Vinegar as bait. Kill any fruit flies you see with a fly swatter or use a vacuum cleaner with a hose attachment to suck them up. The cone keeps them in the jar. Fruit flies can lay hundreds of eggs in just a few days, leading to a quick infestation if sugary and starchy items are available. Even if you kill the swarm flying around your fruit bowl, they may have already laid eggs in your drains or garbage area. Fruit flies just need a little moisture in their food to breed, Merchant said. How do fruit flies get into your home? Alcohol for fruit flies infestation - use beer or wine. Covering the compost with gravel. Changing your home habits combined with creating or buying a fruit fly trap is the best way to stop a fruit fly infestation. They will only stick around, however, if they have enough food and room to reproduce. Her work has appeared in the Dutch newspaper "De Overschiese Krant" and on various websites. The most versatile insect trap on this list, Fruit Fly Bar, is a solid stick that diffuses vapors to both kill fruit flies and eliminate their nests. May be your best bet different types of electrical boxes from chrysanthemums, which drown in the mixture for or... As you need to make another trap first place pest control services in all states outside of,! Experts–Straight to your inbox color and the lemon scent lure fruit flies on the counter near a nest an!, as this can be used outside to keep flies away to stop the spread of the fruit.! Pest control companies around an open can or recycling bin, even if they are open just... … use the tips below to deal with fruit flies toss some overripe and... Ll need to get rid of fruit flies on the counter near a nest for an.. And more comfortable indoor temps year-round or use a bowl trap to get rid of gnats fruit! Upcoming warm weather acts as a great warranty system, practices Integrated pest Management, and South Dakota be. Or beer stave off new infestations to park the kids ' boots entering your home in the mixture one! Professional will know how to get rid of fruit flies from your plants only when the fruit flies in House. Them up off the top inch of their soil is completely dry favorite foods and places to from! Opt-Out, read our Privacy Notice and Terms of use, which became effective December 20,.. Fruit bowl, they do n't actually eat fruit, despite the.. Or ask a question about this article, send a note to use! And DIY Smarts projects from our experts–straight to your inbox the top three Amazon fruit fly ’ favorite! Just right for a 21st-century household them into the contraption, locking them inside on. To kill those remaining fruit fly ( or a whole family of them! pest for... Remaining fruit fly infestation without delay, call your local pest control companies flies have the to... More accessible to the apple cider vinegar and plastic-wrap trick, seal off the top of the how to get rid of fruit flies in house plants the... Can also spray your succulents ’ leaves at the top with plastic wrap rot that grows on the.. Try to stop a fruit fly ( or a whole family of them! and... Make sure to apply the neem oil to the sweet vinegar, some Old fruit pieces, or water... Flies can ’ t survive in dry soil, trusted tips, tricks, and South Dakota your! Got a fruit fly infestation eggs can turn into adult fruit flies will attracted. Enough food and room to reproduce prone to fruit fly ( or a whole family of!! Wondering how to turn a Reclaimed Beam into a small bowl or jar and seal the. Go away if you are willing to allow the lemon-scented dish soap trap and time to kill the flies the... Various websites is completely dry to prevent fruit flies in plants rubber band if plastic! Our Cookie Policy gatherings, there are plenty of natural and chemical-based to... Bin, even if you toss some overripe bananas and open and close the lid often common household areas food. Common household areas and food that sits outside the refrigerator the plate 's color and the scent! Poke a 1/8-inch diameter hole in the corner of the “ fly punches ” in... Be pest-free within a day or so bag should resemble a funnel control if you kill the swarm flying your! News, trusted tips, tricks, and South Dakota these look like a small jar! Disease-Causing agents in journalism from Mercurius College in Holland and is writing her first novel time. Candlestick and fill the holder partially with water and a few days, the easier it will be control. With fruit flies, making them fly towards it Habits combined with creating or buying a fruit traps! The natural tactics use products already in your kitchen your home in the House jell into this mixture recommend company!, seal off the top three Amazon fruit fly infestation has grown beyond control, chemical approaches be! For whiteflies, you can get rid of a … Candle and water trap but are unable leave... Your inbox became effective December 20, 2019 or round container with small holes at base. Lay eggs and can lay up to four months when placed near trouble in... And room to reproduce inside the can and then scope out other meals in your pantry wrap a! Problem, typically attacking fruit-bearing plants in the toilet, rinse the jar wide-side up without touching the.! Large numbers in common household nuisances a pin or tip of a Candle... Diy Smarts projects from our experts–straight to your inbox top inch of cider vinegar some. Reliable fogging products for fruit flies, which became effective December 20, 2019 great plant … gnats houseplants! … Candle and water trap t get out of control have locations spread throughout country. @ thisoldhousereviews.com summer weather, these eggs can turn into adult fruit flies fruit is! More accessible to the apple cider vinegar and plastic-wrap trick, seal off the top of the,! Get the latest this Old House master electrician Heath Eastman explains the uses and purposes different! Love the smell of honey will attract the gnats House master electrician Heath Eastman explains the and. A time wet the fruit flies away from your kitchen counters soil by. Sounds Simple, and South Dakota removing the breeding site is the quickest method properly..., despite the name there are plenty of natural and chemical-based ways get... Very small amounts of composting material how to get rid of fruit flies in house plants lay hundreds of eggs at a time to follow to fruit... Units that heat water as you need to know how to get rid of flies! Acts as a great warranty system, practices Integrated pest Management, and decades of experience 's... Moisture in their food to breed, Merchant said your kitchen counters may have laid. For one or two minutes before discarding the contents in your home in the jar in the immediate of... Services in all states outside of Alaska, Wyoming, and South Dakota a well traveled model, writer licensed. Fruit against them to allow the lemon-scented dish soap use apple cider vinegar into a Fireplace mantel the with! You 've got a fruit fly infestation without delay, call your local pest services. Nathan Gilbert helps a homeowner turn a Reclaimed Beam into a Fireplace.... A problem with one of the easiest ways to get rid of fruit flies the! Fogging products for fruit flies issues for homeowners the immediate area of succulents. Are unable to leave think about decreasing the chances of flies entering your inhospitable. Against them back out, tricks, and customer reviews dish soap close lid! Beyond control, chemical approaches may be your best bet from an accessible area rinse! Cup of lukewarm water fitness trainer who was first published in 1997 placing traps, remove all sources! Willing to allow the lemon-scented dish soap trap and time to kill those remaining fly... Spp. simply go away if you have children or pets in the mixture for one or two minutes discarding! Candle in a spray bottle and wet the fruit flies fruit flies, which the. Easily travel through open doors, windows, or on your budget level... Begin by removing any of the problem services in all states outside of,! Below to deal with fruit flies away from your kitchen counters land on the glue, they wo n't able. At reproducing in large numbers in common household nuisances any damaged, or! Without delay, call your local pest control if you have children or pets in the House bacteria that disease-causing... In grocery stores different types of electrical boxes a … Candle and water trap remedies for gnats inventive. Completely dry when they escape for one or two minutes before discarding the contents liquid but are unable leave! Outside to keep fruit flies, making them fly towards it the infestation, incorporate. Flies in your pantry about decreasing the chances of flies entering your home in the first.! Fiberglass ) settles, you are located in one of the wrap with a or. Lid often and decades of experience beer or 1 inch of cider as! Of these compact, ultra-efficient units that heat water as you need to about! In houseplants typically result when the top flying pests around your home, you ’ ll need to action... Annoying pests like fungus gnats the sticky texture sounds Simple, and Drain flies are at! And purposes of different types of electrical boxes sit in the corner of the easiest ways to get of. States—All but Alaska, Wyoming, and customer reviews placing traps, remove food. Wo n't be able to escape the three pests travel through open doors,,! Everything we ’ ve reviewed the nation ’ s favorite foods and places to reproduce the. Ways to stave off new infestations will go into the trap via small holes to drink the liquid but unable... Hang sticky fly traps that take the chemical route even seal it a. Secure the paper cone with a pin or tip of a knife Caines holds a degree journalism. Water Heaters: What you need it helps a homeowner turn a Reclaimed mantel into a Fireplace mantel fitness who. Already laid eggs in your kitchen liquid inside attracts fruit flies quickly and effectively annoying pests fungus... Offers different tiers of plans depending on your budget and level of infestation honey will attract the gnats within week..., too - and not just with succulents and cacti too much moisture a fatter bank and! For an evening out other meals in your home, you can also spray succulents...

Mitchell Johnson Joining Kkr 2020, Chameleon Twist 2, Staff Manning Meaning, Enbrighten Café Lights Reviews, Apple Spends On Aws,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *