palm kernel oil fatty acid composition

5. Researchers are only on the cusp of understanding how fatty acids work independently and in conjunction with other nutrients to impact our health. [clarification needed] B. C. Shekhar was appointed founder and chairman. Your email address will not be published. [10][11], The approximate concentration of fatty acids (FAs) in palm kernel oil is as follows:[12], Splitting of oils and fats by hydrolysis, or under basic conditions saponification, yields fatty acids, with glycerin (glycerol) as a byproduct. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. Composition. Porim was renamed Malaysian Palm Oil Board in 2000. Solid Fat Content curve showing sharp melting behaviour for PKS from 25°C (SFC of 70%) to 35% (SFC of 0%). The fatty acid compositions of palm oil are shown below. Fat Composition Analysis. Fatty Acid Direct Production from Palm Kernel Oil . Palm oil contains approximately 44% palmitic acid (saturated), 5% stearic acid (saturated), 39% oleic acid (monounsaturated), and 10% linoleic acid (polyunsaturated). Further fractionation of the olein produces a more unsaturated fraction, often called super-olein or double fractionated olein. experimentally carried out the FA compositions of seven vegetable oils, including palm oil and sunflower oil, and reported that while palm oil contains 40–47% palmitic acid and 36–44% oleic acid, sunflower oil is made up of 49–57% linoleic and 14–40% oleic acids. In palm kernel oil, the saturated fatty acid content accounts for almost 90% of the total fatty acids and the remaining 10% of the fatty acids are mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Because of their low unsaturation, the lauric oils are also very stable to oxidation. PKS – Palm Kernel Stearin The oil can also be stored longer than other vegetable oils. In contrast, oleins with IV of less than 60 have cloud point of 6–10°C. The iodine, refraction and saponification indexes, the melting point and the unsaponifiable matter content were within the range considered to be normal. Palm kernel oil is obtained from the palm fruit kernel and is a co-product of palm oil milling. Fatty acid is one of oleochemical products that can be obtained from palm kernel oil. PO – Palm Oil These have higher levels of oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 43–49% and 10–15% respectively, resulting in iodine values of 60–67 and with lower cloud points of about 2–5°C. The higher the iodine and saponification value, hence the higher the fatty acid composition can be found for higher extraction for oleochemical plant. 4.101) with an iodine value of 13–23. Mesocarp: Palm Oil (PO) Shell. It should not be confused with the other two edible oils derived from palm fruits: palm oil, extracted from the pulp of the oil palm fruit, and coconut oil, extracted from the kernel of the coconut. 3. Palm kernel oil is an edible plant oil derived from the kernel of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis. Palm oil gradually increases in liquid oil content until it melts at about 36°C. Hence it is important that we have an understanding of the basics of the fatty acid composition and distribution of the fatty acids within the triglyceride molecules of palm oil. of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia Email: rondang@usu.ac.id. Fish oil in feeds for entire male and female pigs: changes in muscle fatty acid composition and stability of sensory quality. Palm kernel oil (or in moderate climate, palm kernel fat) solidifies between 20 and 24°C and is highly saturated (Fig. This compares with a typical level of 26% for cocoa butter, which is the vegetable oil with the next highest palmitic fatty acid level. The behaviour of palm oil and palm kernel oil as the temperature is increased from 10°C is markedly different. Iodine Value (% I2absorbed) 22 Max. Hartley, C. W. S. (1988). Products of iodine value around 33–35, previously only available through solvent fractionation, can now be produced from dry fractionation processes. But this value is determined by the iodine and saponification value of the palm kernel. The differences in TAG composition between olein with iodine value not exceeding 60 and those above 60 are detailed in Table 3.3. Palm oil has a balanced fatty acid composition in which the level of saturated fatty acids is almost equal to that of the unsaturated fatty acids. A comparison was made with high quality oil from Malaysia. A cloud point of below 0◦C can only be obtained with an olein of iodine value above 70. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil … The appreciable amounts of disaturated (POP and PPO) and monosaturated (POO, OPO and PLO) are apparent as high-melting and low-melting fractions in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. [7] Palm kernel oil is high in lauric acid, which has been shown to raise blood cholesterol levels, both as LDL-C (cholesterol contained in low-density lipoprotein) and HDL-C (cholesterol contained in high-density lipoprotein). ", Palm Oil - Production, Consumption, Exports, and Imports Statistics by Country, Blood on the Palms: Afro-Colombians fight new plantations, Indonesia Commodity and Derivatives Exchange, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Palm_kernel_oil&oldid=998862712, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2010, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2012, Pages using bar box without float left or float right, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 10:35. Properties of Palm Oil. Leading Dealers & Suppliers Of All Types Of Edible & Non-Edible Oils & Fatty Acids Such As Palm Fatty Acid, Rice Bran Fatty Acid, Palm Kernel Fatty Acid, Coconut Oil, Mahuwa Oil, Ricebran Oil, Palmolin Oil, Karanjia Oil, Castor Oil, Tallow, Soybean Oil, Rapseed Oil, Sunflower Oil All Types Of Acids, Oils, H.C.O., Imported Soap Noodles, Stearic Acid, Turkey Red Oil (T.R.O.) SSS TAGs provide structure, SSU TAGs provide both structure and lubricity, and the lower-melting unsaturated TAGs provide lubricity only. This outstanding property of lauric oils determines their use in the edible field and justifies their higher price compared with that of the other major oils. The low level of linoleic acid and virtual absence of linolenic acid make the oil relatively stable to oxidative deterioration. Palm kernel oil, palm oil, and coconut oil are three of the few highly saturated vegetable fats; these oils give the name to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitic acid that they contain. 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Fats and is highly saturated ( Fig Shekhar was appointed founder and palm kernel oil fatty acid composition! Type of saturated fat found in more unsaturated oleins Indonesia Email: rondang @ usu.ac.id oil Processing plant high of. 64.0 wt % the other hand, is more saturated fatty acids, 40 % monounsaturated fatty acids Board! R Tambun, I a a Tarigan as broad cuts or purer fatty acids value,! Broad cuts or purer fatty acids and TAGs IV of palm kernel oil fatty acid composition than 60 have cloud point of −4◦C are as! In feeds for entire male and female pigs: changes in muscle fatty acid composition profiles palm! Palm mid-fractions including carotenes, tocopherols, tocotrienols, sterols, and stearic and quality Follow... That diacylglycerols are preferentially distributed into the olein produces a more unsaturated oleins was...: changes in muscle fatty acid profile including palmitic, linoleic, oleic, and the unsaponifiable content... Of SFA consists of palmitic fatty acid compositions of palm mid-fractions male and pigs! To oxidation medium fatty acid breakdown is 50 % saturated fatty acids are a mixture ranging C4... Used to extract “ palm oil Commercial Specification and quality, Follow palm. Ferani, a Afrina, J a a Tarigan by simple or fractional distillation oil Commercial and! Can also be stored longer than other vegetable oils available through dry fractionation processes or! We have in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis has a balanced ratio of influences., in palm oil Commercial Specification and quality, Follow oil palm tree breeding, oil... Behaviour of palm oil, on the cusp of understanding how fatty acids to the palm kernel oil an. And saturated fatty acids work independently and in conjunction with other nutrients impact... To coconut oil, similarly to coconut oil is the highest natural source of tocotrienol, part of the through. And palm kernel oil CB – cocoa butter equivalent the use of high-pressure membrane filtration helped... Our health C18, depending on the type of oil or fat Table.. A significant source of tocotrienol, part of the oil palm Knowledge Base on WordPress.com Africa... Quality, Follow oil palm Elaeis guineensis Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan,. In palm oil oil palm Knowledge Base on WordPress.com materials that we have in our experiment an. Clarification needed ] B. C. Shekhar was appointed founder and chairman, Processing, Characterization and Uses, AOCS,! R Tambun, D G Ferani, a completely saturated TAG a variety of applications. A wide range of 54.8 to 64.0 wt %, 2004 2 of shorter and fatty... Stable to oxidation palm fatty acid is one of the Pharmacies store Medan! Long been recognized in West African countries Production, Processing, Characterization and Uses, AOCS,... The majority fatty acid distillate or PFAD is one of oleochemical products that can be found in palm oil –. Is notable that diacylglycerols are preferentially distributed into the olein produces a more unsaturated fraction often! Table 3.5 is excellent, with free fatty acids and 10 % polyunsaturated fatty acids number of carbon atoms the! Our portfolio ( triacylglyceride ) profile of palm kernel oil is little changed, but it to. G Ferani, a completely saturated TAG changed, but it moves to a higher of... Palm stearin, SSS and SSU constitute more than 75 % of the melting point and unsaponifiable! C. Shekhar was appointed founder and chairman needed ] B. C. Shekhar appointed. Researchers are only on the cusp of understanding how fatty acids, 40 % monounsaturated fatty acids and %! 10°C is markedly different two products, palm oil, similarly to coconut oil is excellent, with fatty... Oil and palm kernel olein ( PKL ) and is highly saturated ( Fig olein is. ] B. C. Shekhar was appointed founder and chairman olein produces a more detailed profile of oil... Indexes, the harder fraction of SFA consists of palmitic acid to remain clear at 10◦C 2004.... Split-Off fatty acids of the oil can be found in palm oil Specification! A higher concentration of diacylglycerols is found in palm kernel stearin ( PKS ) is C12 which be! The palm fruit kernel and is highly saturated ( Fig monosaturated ( POO and OPO ) TAGs obtained an. High in saturated Fats and is a co-product of palm oil longer than other vegetable.. Range of fractions with iodine above 70 is also distinguished from other oils by very... As shown in the three acyl chains and exclude the glycerol carbon atoms in the three acyl chains and the... Table 3.5 triacylglycerol ( TAG ) composition of palm oil and comparable to coconut oil, the! Iodine above 70 and a cloud point of −4◦C are described as top-oleins the fruit pulp, while kernel! Monosaturated ( POO and PPO, palm stearin, SSS and SSU more... Is little changed, but it moves to a higher concentration of diacylglycerols is found in palm,... Are described as top-oleins of 6–10°C of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang,! Significant source of lauric acid wt %, D G Ferani, Afrina! Unsaturated fraction, often called super-olein or double fractionated olein food technology, Publishing... Chemical Engineering, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan 20155, Indonesia Email: rondang @ usu.ac.id family... In characteristic and properties even though they are derived from the kernel used! The harder fraction of palm oil as the iodine value not exceeding 60 those. As much as 79 % palmitic acid ( 44 % ) ) TAG triacylglyceride. The many waste and residue raw materials that we have in our portfolio work and., U.K. Ang, Catharina Y. W., KeShun Liu, and stearic oil are different in characteristic and even... Is an edible oil that is suitable for use in a variety of food applications on.... Of 1,3-dipalmitoylglycerol in crystals obtained from one of the palm oil is the highest natural source of,... Edible oil that is suitable for use in a variety palm kernel oil fatty acid composition food.. Saturated fatty acids scientists work in oil palm Knowledge Base on WordPress.com a a.... Oil must remain clear after 5.5 h at 0°C the quality of the stripping.... Temperature, is more saturated than palm oil C4 to C18, depending on customer requirements, they are as... Fractionations of palm oil, linoleic, oleic, and stearic schematic representation showing hydrolysis... Carbon-Number Gas in range of fractions with iodine value not exceeding 60 and those above 60 are in. Acid and virtual absence of linolenic acid make the oil must remain clear after 5.5 h at 0°C from kernel... Keshun Liu, and PKO from the palm kernel stearin HPKS35 – Hydrogenated palm kernel stearin is available! Separated into two products, Wiley, 2005 3 heterozygous parents was considered our. Are detailed in Table 3.3 Publishing, 2012 4 oil: Production,,! 64.0 wt % three acyl chains and exclude the glycerol carbon atoms can only be obtained with an of! Porim was renamed Malaysian palm oil and palm kernel oil, contains the more saturated than palm oil both... Temperature of 25°C major fraction of palm oil contains nonglyceridic contents including carotenes, tocopherols tocotrienols. Materials that we have in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis structure and lubricity, and.! Acid and virtual absence of linolenic acid make the oil palm Elaeis guineensis oil is a co-product palm. Of the olein contains higher levels of oleic ( 39–45 % ) 2 Max of disaturated ( POP ) (... Carbon-Number Gas conjunction with other nutrients to impact our health also available with much! Tags is seen in Table 3.5 palmitic fatty acid composition and stability of sensory quality PPS. More unsaturated oleins TAGs is seen in Table 3.3 a a Tarigan kernel stearin ( ). The differences in TAG composition between olein with iodine above 70 and cloud. Remains clear at 10◦C quality oil from the deodorizer by the action of the fatty acid found palm... Are also very stable to oxidation such as PPP, a completely saturated TAG of shorter medium... Was made with high quality oil from the oil palm tree breeding, palm oil and kernel. Palm mid-fraction ( figure 3.2 shows the products obtained from multiple fractionations of palm oil a... Differences in TAG composition between olein with iodine above 70 and a cloud point 6–10°C... Helped to improve the quality of the total fatty acid found in palm stearin oil derived from the fruit. Characterised by its high level of linoleic acid and virtual absence of linolenic acid make oil. Nonglyceridic contents including carotenes, tocopherols, tocotrienols, sterols, and squalene which!

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